In British India, there were 565 princely states. The princes controlled these princely kingdoms directly. The British empire did not control those states.
On June 3, 1947, the British government finally decided to divide the Indian subcontinent into two separate states. Mr: Lord Mountbatten Architected subcontinent division map. According to the plan, Muslim majority regions shall be joining Pakistan, and Hindus predominant regions joining India. As a result of that in August 1947, two new nations, India and Pakistan, emerged on the map of the world. Out of 565, only 13 princely states Joined Pakistan. Even though 80% population of Jammu and Kashmir was Muslim, the state was provided with the option either to Join Pakistan, India, or remain an independent state. Maharaja Hari Singh was a Non-Muslim prince of Jammu and Kashmir, therefore, he had a soft corner for India. Being a Hindu ruler Maharaja Hari Singh wanted the predominantly Muslim state of Kashmir to be a part of India. Finally, after signing the Instrument of Accession agreement with the Indian government on October 26, 1947, he was able to do so and confiscated all legally owned guns provided for self-defense from Kashmiri Muslims.. In the agreement, only three powers were transferred to the Indian parliament defense, external affairs, and communication. If Maharaja had signed a merger agreement with India the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir would have lost their total individual identity. However, it was too late for him because he had lost a large chunk of a princely state to Muslim rebels in the Poonch Jagir region of J & K in the month of October 1947. In the armed struggle, oppressed rebels freed 13,297 km² of land from Maharaja Hari Singh forces, and declared Azad Kashmir a sovereign state.
During the uprising, more than 20,000 Muslims were massacred and thousands of others were plundered by the Maharaja Hari Singh forces and Hindu extremists. On the other side, a war between Pakistan and the Indian military continued from October 22, 1947, to January 1, 1948, over the princely state of Kashmir that came to an end after UN intervention. On 17th January 1948, the United Nations passed the resolution for Plebiscite or right to self-determination, in which Kashmiris were given a carte blanche to decide their fate through the ballot, either Join Pakistan, India or remain as a sovereign independent state. UN resolution further says India and Pakistan must withdraw their troops from Jammu and Kashmir in order to ensure justice and peaceful elections. Pakistan pulled out its all troops after the UN resolution, but India betrayed the UN by deploying about one million troops in occupied Jammu and Kashmir. The people of Kashmir have never been allowed to decide their future through ballot by the Indian government, therefore, United Nations Plebiscite or the right to self-determination resolution could not be materialized. In the Instrument of Accession agreement, the Indian government had acquired only three powers defense, external affairs, and communication, but India has confiscated all Jammu and Kashmir’s powers by force to restrain them from using the right of self-determination.